Navigating Wall Street

“How do you suggest I get into XYZ Wall Street job”

With that being the primary question, we have attached a Navigation Map.

Wall Street Cheat Sheet

Now if you look carefully at this chart, the lines “linking” to other boxes is the easiest way to transition. So an investment banker could go to PE with some hard work, but would be harder pressed to jump to a long-only shop. In addition, if he wanted to move down to a tier 3 job that would be tremendously easy. Moving up the prestige scale is significantly harder than moving down.

The next thing to note is once you drop below tier 3, you’re in no mans land. The hardest of all jumps is from tier 4 to tier 3. The reason why is at tier 3 and above you’re looking at high paying positions with significantly higher stress levels. In tier 3 it would be easier to jump down banks (Ex. from a bulge bracket research position to a mid market investment banking position). Same is true from tier 2 to tier 1.

Now if you look at the chart from left to right it moves from transactional positions to modeling positions to stock picking/portfolio positions. This explains why it is much more difficult to move from corporate M&A to sales and trading even though they have relatively equal pedigree. The jobs are simply not that transferable. In a corporate finance job you’re looking at acquisitions, not movements in stock prices and in a Sales and Trading position you’re monitoring many stocks and must be on top of significant moves in stock prices.

For a trained eye there are two glaring omissions. 1) People with PHD’s and 2) Venture Capital.

1) For the PHD position if you understand the niche versus broad concept it would be in your best interest to apply your niche knowledge to break into either a research position or a hedge fund position. At that point you’re in the game and you can move around after 1-2 years of experience with relative ease.

2) For Venture Capital, we hesitated on placing it into the private equity bucket since it is ***relatively*** similar, you are deploying capital into a small firm and hope to exit the position at a profit. The reason why it is excluded from Wall Street is the segment is niche and your job could be impressive to meaningless. The reason why is some Venture Capital firms simply make you call and try to obtain funding or cold call to source deals. This would actually be a better link to Sales and Trading. Alternatively, you could be a rock-star and have a large amount of cash to invest yourself… In which case you unlikely need any advice from this site. With all that said we already covered the basics of the topic.

Pay? Note anything below Tier three is a significant drop in pay (50% or more). When people speak of  “Front Office Wall Street” they are referring to Tier 3 and above jobs. As an example a person with 5 years of experience in Sales and Trading is making $150-200K at minimum. A person working in financial advisory services is making $75K or so as they are likely seeing 5% raises versus $10-20K+ raises which are the norm in front office roles.

There are exceptions (a person who started his own asset management firm as an example) but generally your goal is to jump into a Tier 3 or above job as soon as possible to learn the necessary skills to have a long career on the Street.

Conclusion: While there are always exceptions to the map laid out, it is best to start there. Print it out and ask yourself where you could slide in with the best “pitch”. In addition, remember that time is not on your side in any way. The longer you stay in any position, be it Banking, Research, Accounting or otherwise, the tougher it is to move. Give yourself 1-2 years max before jumping into one of the tier 3 or better jobs. There are times to be patient and when it comes to moving up or getting into Wall Street… this is not one of those times. Good luck out there.

Comments

  1. JT84 says

    Based on the map are you suggesting to always choose even a small PE/HF job over a larger name brand investment bank? Or is this more of a general guideline on sizing being equal?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Think of it more as a guideline, GS investment banking will trump a chop shop $10M hedge fund any day of the week. So using common sense you can triangulate the best path.

      However, to emphasize the gap from Tier 3. Even a no-name equity research or investment banking firm would trump accounting as the jobs are practically unrelated at that level.

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Very low probability.

      The jump from sales and trading to a long-only is also quite difficult, the link is only there because if you are great with sales you can raise cash with your connections (this would be a top top top top tier s&t guy).

      When people think of Wall Street and “trading” they are thinking of a “head of desk” which is a multi-million dollar job and requires years of training. Or they mistake it with “trading stocks” which would be a prop desk.

      Frequency trading is run by agorithms made by intense mathematicians, the 0.01% of Wall Street jobs that require high level math skills.

  2. Wolfgang says

    I’m surprised to see asset management ranked so low. Can you please comment on your definition and the ranking? It seems that Analysts at Fidelity, or even an old line firm like Dodge and Cox fall in the asset managemt bucket, and that there should be a line to long only PM.

    Also, where do end-investors lie, such as pension, endowment and foundation funds? While they’re not exactly on the street, I’m curious to hear your thoughts.

    Thanks in advance. Love the site

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Pension funds usually pay low. A PM running a pension fund in the middle of a no-name state is only pulling in $200K a year.

      Unless you’re high up the ladder yes asset management/wealth management is essentially not Wall Street.

  3. am says

    this is quite ridiculous…most equity research analysts and many investment bankers are dying to break into asset management analyst (portfolio management) roles. This career path is directly linked to long-only portfolio managers and hedge fund managers.

    This chart only makes sense if the asset management box were to refer to non-front office asset management jobs.. is this what you wanted to graph, Wallstreet Playboys?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Disagree with you. If you look at the top right we have distinguished the one position in asset management/long-only that is highly coveted a long-only portfolio manager.

      The key is you have to be a PM.

      All other positions, IB analyst, Associate in Sales and Trading/research, Vice president in tier 3+ etc etc. will all pay significantly more. Most people outside of the higher end PM do not get paid well at all in asset management, they are stuck at that $100-200K mark.

      Rare exceptions, but again, unless you are an actual PM you have more opportunities in other fields. Finally, your assumption that **most** Wall Street Analysts and Bankers want to be PMs is also not accurate as sell-side has “consistency in pay” versus volatility on the buy side. So many analysts have no interest in leaving their jobs.

      Unless you are a PM ask yourself who has more options? A middle end HF/PE/Banker or a middle end AM person (not running a book). It is not even close.

      • am says

        thanks for disagreeing with me. I like disagreements. please enlighten me if I am wrong. I will enlighten you if you’re wrong.

        if your prestige order was designed only to reflect pay scale, then yes, I can kind of agree with you (but no, if you’re thinking of pay per hour). and yes perhaps if you’re thinking of the “number” of exit options available (not for S&T though).

        However, I was thinking more of the potentials of the options available. Yes, AM to PE doesn’t work. However, which is easier? AM to HF? or IB to HF?
        AM to AM’s PM? or IB to AM’s PM?
        this is quite obvious.

        and I think the most ridiculous thing on this chart is that you tiered AM on the same level of PB and accounting.

        FYI, I am a PM Assistant. when my PM group needs to hire an associate, I go through a huge pile of resumes with people from various IB, S&T and Research background.

        I believe this: HF, PE > AM > IB, S&T, ER > Corp Finance > PB > Accounting

      • Wall Street Playboys says

        We suggest you start your own blog.

        The graphic will not change as advice is given based on exit opportunities and pay.

        Good luck!

  4. Jonathon Factory says

    Where would Junior Financial Analyst FP&A in a Fortune 500 company fall on the chart above?
    Would that be Column 1, Tier 3 or a lower Tier?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Depends on your actual job to job duties. If you’re in the actual M&A department where you’re working on transactions it would be in Tier 3. If it is simply a processing type job think of it as similar to accounting.

  5. Ex-M&A Banker says

    When I worked in M&A (at a firm that’s effortlessly more prestigious than any investment bank) it wasn’t uncommon to see VPs or sometimes even MDs work past 11pm. Lean deal teams mean huge paychecks but often necessitates long hours even for relatively senior people.

    Now I’m at a long-only AM making as much as I did in M&A working half as many hours doing work that’s much more interesting. The hours-compensation balance versus M&A continues to tilt exponentially in favor of AM as I gain seniority. I’m not sure what your basis is for placing AM below banking or equity research, a good long-only fund is essentially a significantly less stressful version of a value-oriented hedge fund with a lower compensation ceiling (that is still far above anything you could make on the sell-side). Granted I’m at a top fund, so this may not be the case if you’re doing AM at a BB, but I was also at a top M&A team, so I think the comparison remains apt.

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      You answered your own point within the comment. You’d qualify as a guy in the top right of that chart because you are running a book. Also all the work you put in positioned you for the job.

      • Ex-M&A Banker says

        I recommend positions, but I’m many years away from becoming a PM. You may want to reevaluate your stance on the desirability of top mutual funds. Based on financial compensation, work-life balance, and selectivity (really, based on any metric except laymen prestige), the top long-only funds like Third Avenue, Dodge & Cox, and Capital Group easily surpass the top investment banks.

      • Wall Street Playboys says

        ? I think we are still in agreement. If you can get a PM slot in Capital Group you’re pretty much set for life. Although we doubt many will fit the interview criteria they have. The Top right corner again reflects any PM and obviously it is 100000x better to be a PM at Capital Group or Fidelity etc.

        Long story short. for 90% of people who can make it into Wall Street at all, the map above is your best bet. If you’re in the top 1% of all the Wall Street Candidates you’re likely going to end up in the Top tier (Again top right corner) where you are making a lot of money.

        If you go out of college into your “average” or even “above average” asset management company you’re not going to move up at a very fast clip. Making it to Vice president in S&T/ER/IBD is much faster (call it 6 years) where you can then jump to a position like yours or essentially a position of high value.

        Hope that makes sense. There are always nuances. But of course Cap Group PM is pretty much top of the chain. How many people can actually land a real interview with Cap though? Maybe 5% of all legitimate candidates.

  6. Lauren K. says

    I assume Corporate Banking analyst (syndicated debt transaction) falls on Tier 4? I understand PE and IB fall on Tier 1 and 2 but how about them Boutique/small shops?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Generally speaking, size does not matter, we suggest you read the post on myths about Wall Street.

      On a glance the position you describe sounds like tier 3 and the move to IB would be to DCM.

      PE/IB boutique/small shops have less opportunities, so overall a Boutique PE would outrank a boutique IB.

      We noted in the post there are always exceptions, a clear example would be working for Google and closing 10+ M&A transactions in their M&A division being better than working at a no name bank with zero transactions

  7. Moochy says

    It doesn’t seem my comment on this article got through the other day. But basically I was asking whether you guys think this map is applicable to other financial centres like London or Singapore/HK.

    I mention this because some of the sectors here seem to be accorded more prestige and status in some places more than others. Something that comes to mind is Private Banking which is quite prestigious here in Europe and becoming so in Asia but only comes on a par with Audit firms in this representation (which seems a bit baffling to me).

    On the subject of which do you have any thoughts on private banking in terms of a desirable area to get into? I’d be interested to hear whether you think the investment specialists and portfolio managers in this area could go on to roles in other areas higher up in your food chain.

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      1. Our info is 100 % USA based so not sure
      2. Private banking is not seen as prestigious at all in the USA. Unless you are truly top tier and are working with a lot of wealthy people it doesn’t pay well and offers next to no exit opportunities.

      Unfortunately, not sure about Singapore either.

  8. REguy says

    I am currently in real estate private equity in a lower MM shop as an analyst (straight out of school) been there for 4 months.

    I want to get out of RE, should I wait before jumping to IB (targeting infrastructure/utilities) or network now and try to lateral right now during this recruiting cycle?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      If you want to switch you always try to switch as soon as possible, ie of course you should network starting yesterday. You should always be networking.

      That said, most hiring occurs after a bonus cycle so it usually takes 1 year of experience to see traction.

  9. BBS says

    I’m a little late to the party. currently in private wealth management looking to get to Sales & trading. Is that side of the business only hiring out of top tier business schools or can I break in based on experience, networking and my level 1 CFA.

  10. us says

    Which category would a US Equity Analyst at a bulge bracket bank fall under? (Investment Management – not equity research)

    Tier 4?

  11. CH says

    You guys had a post that I now can’t seem to find about the best majors for were for breaking into IB on wall street in order of importance. I’m out of high school and about to attend a good junior college so I can transfer into UC Berkeley. I think you guys put a Finance Major at #1.

    The only problem is my junior college and UC Berkeley do not offer a finance major so would majoring in Business Administration be a good option? I also plan on minoring in economics.

    If you could link me to the page I’m talking about I’d appreciate it.

    Thanks for the blog, this stuff is great.

      • Anonymous says

        Great. Assuming I maintain an excellent GPA and score some good internships and network etc, will going to a junior college and transferring to UC Berkeley hurt my chances of scoring a good analyst job on The Street?

        I guess Berkeley is a target school though so hopefully the can see past the junior college thing.

      • Wall Street Playboys says

        Yes it is a target school primarily for west coast banking. Comparable to something in between NYU and Cornell on the east coast.

        Yes the JC will hurt you. Usually means you have to start at a much lower end internship (smaller IB’s the bulge brackets will take the top students who were there for 4 years, this is the case for any JC transfer). Nothing you can do about it.

        Get internships now (low end finance) to try and get a head start. Good luck!

  12. Anonymous says

    Thanks one last question if you dont mind, im in LA and cant afford to move out of my parents house to live in Berkeley but if I went to UCLA instead of JC and then transferred to Berkeley would that open up better internship opportunities with the bulge bracket banks ( GS, JP, MS, etc) and make it worth it?
    I figure that way i can just tell recruiters I didn’t fit with UCLA and needed a switch. My main goal is to work in New York.

    Im looking for local internships for my freshman year right now (financial planners, wealth managers) etc.

  13. PE Guy says

    I like your chart. But I’m going to pile on with where AM/IM is placed–it’s hurting your credibility. It should be tier 1 / tier 2 (depending on size/prestige of the AM), along with its buy-side peers of PE/HF/VC.

    It doesn’t make sense that you’d have one role at an AM as tier 1 (Portfolio Manager) and all the other roles in AM as tier 4. Where do you think those PMs come from? They get promoted from lower ranks – the analyst ranks. It’s not like people are moving from “Tier 4” all the way to “Tier 1” in a single promotion.

    I think part of your issue is that you are confusing AM/IM with wealth management as you seem to lump them together in your comments (one is a buy-side investor role and the other is a client management role) and another part of your issue is that your paradigm seems to be at a pre-MBA level. On a pre-MBA level, an equity associate role is probably slightly below IB and on-par with/above S&T/sellside equity research, depending on the firm, as it is a research support role and often doesn’t provide a PM-track. But post-MBA, or the Research Analyst position, it is very competitive and it can also be very lucrative. Candidates are sourced from top MBA programs, highly-rated internal research associates, sell-side analysts, and, yes, PE and HFs. The Analyst role is the PM/Partner track role for AM (about 4-10 years) just like it is at a HF, a Sr. Associate/VP for the partner track in PE, or an Associate role for the partner track in Big Law for that matter. I went to a top 2 MBA program, and came from IB and PE, and the large AMs were highly competitive even for the top PE/HF people in the class (to my initial surprise–the big mutual funds are the best kept secret on Wall Street IMO).

    I think a simple solution to your chart is to add IM PM/Analyst to your Tier 1 box and move the rest of IM up to Tier 3.

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Chart still won’t change. We have already explained why (numerous times above). This blog is designed to target pre-mba candidates unless otherwise noted. If anyone is reading “navigating Wall Street” and is post MBA… They are wasting their time and are terrible MBA hires. By the time you’re getting an MBA you better know *exactly* why you’re going and for what role/transition. Again. Otherwise you’re wasting your time and money. Directionless MBA = worst use of money in history.

      You know this if your background is legitimate. Post mba = you already know which slots are legitimate and which ones are a waste. This chart is not tailored for that crowd.

      Look up the guys who go straight into AM out of undergrad (unless you’re harvard/Yale or something extreme). Follow them in their career. Practically never go up the rank. There is a reason for this.

      Out of a top MBA and large firm? Sure. Likely on promote track. Out of a typical target school undergrad? No way.

      As always people are free to get advice wherever they like.

      Finally as noted we no longer care about “credibility” eventually you hit a point where you start a company (or several)… Realize you make much more from that than you do on Wall Street… Then wonder why you ever did Wall Street in the first place!

      Then you too would start a blog to make sure junior workers come in at least *aware* so you don’t have to train them. Ha!

      Wall street work is at least fun though!

  14. Anonymous says

    Love the website and has already been very useful after only recently discovering it. I am due to start a graduate scheme at Morgan Stanley (UK) in their Operations division (I know) and was wondering if you had any direct experience from moving to Sales and Trading from Operations? I know this is going to be fucking difficult but so far I have broken down the process into 3 components:

    1) Networking – engaging with MDs on the trading floor as much as possible who actually have an influence at the bank.

    2) Be good at your job – be the best at what you do without making errors.

    3) CFA – acquire CFA certificate to illustrate basic financial knowledge.

    I will more than likely be placed in a trade/sales support team within Operations, which should allow decent exposure to the Sales and Trading guys. I also recognise I need to make this move happen 1-2 years into my career or my chances severely deteriorate.

    If you had any further advice on making this big leap it would be much appreciated.

    Thanks

      • Anonymous says

        Thanks a lot for the quick response!

        I will let you know once I’ve made my first million – it it will be before 30.

      • Anonymous says

        I finally done it guys – moving out of a job and into a career. Thanks for helping me change my life, mainly though setting higher standards. Going to hit th first year extremely hard and then extrapolate skillset for a biz. Personally would like to go into RE and have been taking careful notes of relevant articles. Thanks again.

  15. LA Investor says

    I work in an asset management (Tier 4) role and receive a lot of research reports from sell side research analysts (Tier 3) at top tier banks. Occasionally I have to reach out to them for clarification on their analysis, etc. Is there anything you can think of that I can do to add value to those guys as I would like to strengthen my network/relationship with them?

    Thanks for the great posts/advice.

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Find a way to meet institutional investors and get a few smaller ones as clients.

      Otherwise they are going to groan everytime they hear from you. The last thing they want to do is talk to wealth management (just giving you the reality).

      If you have institutional clients you have a much better shot at building relationships with them and moving to institutional sales or research later on.

      • LA Investor says

        To clarify, the Tier 4 asset management firm I work at is a large (50B+ AUM) institutional asset manager and our company (not myself personally) does a large volume of trading with them.

      • Wall Street Playboys says

        What is your question.

        If you want to make the jump to research or institutional sales we have given it to you.

        Prove you have a laundry list of clients (one is not enough) who will pay money to the firm. Use this to get interviews (your clients will recommend you). Then interview and land the position.

  16. Anonymous says

    This is a follow up post from the guy who has a graduate scheme in Ops at MS (April 21, 2015 at 10:19 pm). As of this morning I have also secured a Summer Internship at Aberdeen Asset Management (cc$500bn AUM) and will use this to get on the graduate scheme their or as leverage to move to S&T if I go back to MS.

    I am under NO illusions asset management is tier 4 unless you run your own book, however, I believe I have a better chance of moving to S&T from asset management as opposed to S&T from Ops. Do you agree?

    Second, once I’ve successfully networked myself to a face-to-face position with a PM on my Summer Internship, how could I impress and persuade them I am better than the regular interns? My initial thoughts was to learn about a sector in as much depth as possible and use that knowledge to deliver a pitch stock/recommendation.

    Once again, your advice would be much appreciated!

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Yes in general the AM firm is better. You should double check by seeing how many people switched from ops to front office at the large firm (we’re guessing it’s extremely low) but always double check your work.

      The second question is already covered on numerous posts here.

  17. says

    I recently interned in the front office of a firm with over 50bn in aum managing both hedge funds and long only funds.

    Would you regard an analyst position at this firm (analysing stocks for investment in both long-only and hedge funds, NOT back office work) as “hedge fund” (tier 1) or “asset management” (tier 4)?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      If you’re from a top school likely tier 1. If you’re from a non-target lilely tier 4.

      That is the point of the separation on the chart. There are two tracks 1) never getting promoted track and 2) Rock star likely going up the chain quickly.

      We don’t know which one you are. This is why we recommend banking or straight to a *top* Buyside as a first career.

      • says

        At top target so could be positive. (H/Y/P)

        Why do you regard buyside progression as being particularly binary out of underground in comparison to positions such as IBD and S&T? (ie rockstar or never getting promoted)

        Are there any particular indicators that you would recommend to mark out a *top* buyside firm?

      • Wall Street Playboys says

        Look at the profiles of the people who move up to a money management role. IE: analyst or PM.

        If you see they went to your undergrad, you are good to go.

        You practically never see a low level school undergraduate go straight up. Usually on a different track. Banking isn’t binary because it is a *sales* role.

        Finally, the point of wall street is to get promoted. Arguing about what is top isn’t useful for your career (larger firm is generally “top”). Hence the advice to simply do the research and see if people get promoted. People who worry about a $10K base salary difference or $20K bonus difference rarely ever last on the street.

        Can’t help beyond that. You’ll have to go on linked-in and do the research.

        You’ll find this comment to be true though. Overall? You’re in great shape just do the research, will take less than 1 day of effort.

  18. says

    Thanks for the advice, this site as a whole has been a tremendous help in my efforts to break onto the Street.

    Just to clarify one particular point that you made. You stated the money-management (i.e. desirable) buyside roles to be analyst/PM.

    Does this mean that you would regard an analyst (as in research analyst rather than graduate analyst) role at a *top* buyside firm to be a tier 1 role, whether in long-only or in hedge funds?

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Not sure what you are asking.

      Money management roles are as follows:

      PM – in charge of book
      Analyst – in charge of sector
      Associate – excel monkey who doesn’t matter unless he can generate value and become in charge of a sector (you start at this level and move up, only join the firm if they have promoted people before)

      Anything above associate is where you want to be long-term. Prestige non-sense is for people who don’t have any experience on Wall Street where they worry about what top is. “Are you managing money, yes or no?” If the answer is yes you’re in a revenue generating role. Get to a money management, decision making role as fast as possible by doing real research(seeing what firms promote) and ignoring everything else you read on the Internet about top versus bottom.

  19. says

    Hey WallStreetPlayboys

    Does ‘Research’ in this case refer strictly to sell-side research, or does it also include research at buy-side firms such as mutual funds?

    Thanks

    Mark B

    • Wall Street Playboys says

      Answer is “it depends”.

      That is even more niche, so simply follow the money. If you’re making $400+ in your early 30s the answer is yes.

      If they are terminal positions, the answer is no.

  20. Vic DM says

    quick Q, where would Project Finance and Structured Finance fit into this sheet? in IB?

    btw thanks for the blog, this is the first q that I have that couldnt answer with the serch bar.

  21. TransitioningVet says

    Awesome website gents. I am a transitioning veteran, and this is very helpful. I have secured an “internship” with a major bank. I get to choose my rotations, and am interested in municipal banking. I apologize if I have missed it, but I can’t find too much information about this type of IB on this site, or any other for that matter. What are your thoughts/advice, and where would it fit within the framework you outlined above? Thanks for your time and consideration.

  22. Anonymous says

    Same person who commented about starting a job in Operations at MS. Have wanted to provide an update for a while but never quite found the time until now.

    I started my role in February this year and although have not made the move to front office yet, I am confident it will happen at after I have been working at the firm for a year (probably mid-2017).

    For anyone else looking to move from back office to front office, I would not bother doing the CFA but instead focus on networking aggressively and being the number one ranked analyst in your back office department. Instead of the CFA, I have been using my spare time to read books (Mikael Syding’s recommendations), listen to podcasts (Macrovoices ) and follow blogs relating to financial markets (Zero Hedge ). An influential FO MD at my firm told me there are better ways to prove your worth rather than having three expensive letters after your name i.e. the aforementioned activities.

    Besides navigating Wall Street, I also wanted to comment on other areas of the site and how it has generally improved my standards and quality of living.

    Hobbies are paramount to being an interesting, well-rounded individual. So many people in my office have no interests besides drinking, partying or watching football (soccer). You immediately stand out just by having two hobbies…I chose golf (seemed a natural activity given I work in finance) and Spanish.

    Following on from Spanish…I was recently dating an 8/10 latina. I am reluctant to give her a rating following the advise from Models (a must read for anyone) but I wanted to illustrate the relationship between Personal Finance and Dating. Yes, money is important when dating women, but social skills (game), looks (I am considered ‘handsome’) and location (London) are obviously important also. Case in point, the women I was dating earned more money than me. Can’t wait to start dating when I actually have money! Unfortunately she cut it off with me recently but life is all about taking losses. I know where I went wrong and have improved as a person, which will allow me to date more efficiently in the future. I made the silly mistake of solely dating one girl when I should have continued to date multiple girls (multiple dates/multiple incomes).

    Furthermore, my looks have materially improved by aiming to exercise everyday and I have been following both this exercise routine and this diet since I started my role in February. I have gone from being skinny-fat to weighing 86kg with 14% body at 6 foot. Still a long way to go but I have learnt to only compare yourself to your past self and no one else. Any other alternative leads to unhappiness.

    In terms of areas of improvement I would have liked to read more outside of financial markets with the obvious area being online sales. Every spare minute I have when not socialising/committing to hobbies is spent learning more about financial markets in order to move to FO. When I do make the move into a revenue generating role, I envisage myself spending most of my spare time reading about online sales and/or website design in order to start my own business.

    Anyway, have really enjoyed my new quality of living and wanted to say thanks to you guys. Keep up the great advice.

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